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CHECK-LIST

OF

Norra Awertcan Brrps

PREPARED BY A COMMITTEE

OF THE

American Ornithologists’ Union.

THIRD EDITION (REVISED)

Zodlogical Nomenclature is a means, not an end, of Zodlogical Science

NEW YORK

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS’ UNION 1910

Qu CTT

AS| mie

A Me eo ‘fs 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION

CHECK-LIST I. Pyaopopgs . a. Colymbi - 1. Colymbide b. Cepphi 2. Gaviide 3. Alcide II. Lonerrennes , 4. Stercorariide 5. Laride . ij 6. Rynchopide . III. Tusrnarss 7. Diomedeide . 8. Procellariide . IV. SreGANoPopEs F 9. Phaéthontide 10. Sulide 11. Anhingide 12. Phalacrocoracide 13. Pelecanide . 14. Fregatide V. ANSERES 3 15. Anatidse VI. OponToctossm . : 16. Pheenicopteride . VII. Heropiones - c. Ibides 17. Plataleide 18. Ibidide

PAGE.

VIII.

IX.

XI.

XIII.

XIV.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

d. Ciconize 3 : : : ; . . 93 19. Ciconiide . is R i : 2 : . 93 e. Herodii i é ij ‘i , Z : : . 94 20. Ardeide 5 z 5 3 : : . . 94 PaLuDICOLZ . 2 7 z : : : 2 : . 100 f. Grues ; : : a _ , 3 . 100 21. Gruide : F z : . ; . 101 22. Aramide . . : : 3 . 2 . loi

g. Ralli . . z . : ¢ : F . 101 23. Rallide . : ij 3 zi . 10L LimicoLa P ‘i : i F és és 3 . 107 24. Phalaropodide . : : i : F . 107

25. Recurvirostridz 3 : : 3 4 F - 108 26. Scolopacidee : . : , ; : : - 109 27. Charadriidee F 5 F ; P : . 126 28. Aphrizide . 5 7 2 é > : a . 131

29. Hematopodide i . : . F . 182 30. Jacanide . i - 5 r : : : . 133 GALUNE . F ri : . : F F . 134 h. Phasiani . : é 3 A ‘i é . 134 31. Odontophoride . : « . . 184

32. Tetraonide F : 3 3 F s . 137 33. Meleagride , 7 - é ‘i * . 145

i. Penelopes . F : A 5 5 . 146 34. Cracide . 7 . e 5 . . : . 146 CoLUMB& : P : : é ; 2 , . 147 35. Columbide " . A . , . 147 Raptors : p F s is : 4 : . 152 j. Sarcorhamphi . : j . r . 152 36. Cathartide a : is 5 . 152

k. Falecones . A + 5 F F 3 . . 158 37. Buteonide é ‘i r r F . 153 38. Falconide . : : 3 : i 6 . 163

39. Pandionide t : : é - . 168

l. Striges - 4 . : . 5 . 168 40. Aluconide . : i - - . 168

41. Strigide . : ‘i - F . 169 Psitraci z : 3 5 : . 179 42. Psittacide . 3 : 3 . . F . 179 CoccyGEs ; : _ . - : 5 . 180 m. Cuculi : ot pal ; . a ‘i 3 . 180 43. Cuculide . : : . i : i . 180

n. Trogones . is , . . . 4 : » 183 44. Trogonide ' ; . - «188

o. Aleyones . ; . : , i i : . 183

45. Alcedinide , 5 . 7 . . 183

CONTENTS. 5

PAGE

XV. Pict 3 s 3 3 é ‘i s : . 185 46. Picide : és x F . 185

XVI. Macrocuires . . 5 F 7 , 7 5 - 196 p. Caprimulgi . 3 : ; é j : F . 196

47. Caprimulgide . . ‘i ; F ; . 196

q. Cypseli é P 5 . : a F : i . 200

48. Micropodide . ; : ; , . . 200

r. Trochili 7 : : : . . . 201

49. Trochilide . : 5 j , a : . 201

XVII. Passerns . F 4 - . 207 s. Clamatores i 5 2 i i i é ; . 207

50. Cotingide . : é * i 5 : . 207

51. Tyrannide . : é ; P : . 207

t. Oscines 3 i 3 7 . 218

52. Alaudide . 7 si di : 3 : . 218

58. Corvide . 3 : , 3 : 3 « “221

54, Sturnide . : F é : : : . 230

55. Icteride . : F F FA Z Fi . 231

56. Fringillidse H . , : . , - . 240

57. Tangaride e ‘i , : 2 2 . 288

58. Hirundinide . : 5 5 A 5 . 290

59. Bombycillide . é : : . é . 295

60. Laniide . * é 3 : A . . . 296

61. Vireonide . 7 . A . 2 : : . 298

62. Cerebide . : { . F , 2 . 3804

63. Mniotiltide és F . 5 . 3804

64. Motacillide . A 2 ‘“ . 327

65. Cinclide . 3 7 - j . 329

66. Mimide . 3 - 5 Z . A ; . 330

67. Troglodytide . 2 7 F : ; . 335

68. Certhiide . , : : : 5 . 344

69. Sittide . 2 5 F : 5 . 345

70. Paridse : é : F . 5 3 : . 347

71. Chameidz 3 5 i z - . 3854

72. Sylviide . . i : : i : . 355

73. Turdide . : 3 . SEA : 7 . 858 HYPOTHETICAL LIST. : F F é . aj . 369 THE FOSSIL BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA . : . 375

INDEX : : e . : : : : . 395

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

HE first edition of this Check-List of North American Birds was published in 1886,' and the second (revised) in 1895.2 The preparation of the present (third) edition was authorized at a Stated Meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union held in New York City, November 13-16, 1905, the work being assigned to the Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of North American Birds. Another Committee was at the same time appointed to make a critical examina- tion of the A. O. U. Code of Nomenclature, with a view to amending some of its provisions, should such revision seem desirable. This Comuuittee, after prolonged consideration of the subject, made its report, which was adopted by the Council of the Union, and a small edition of the revised Code was issued in July, 1908.3 The ‘New Code’ is thus the basis of the nomenclatural rulings of the present Check-List.

The Committee on Nomenclature and Classification, besides holding numerous sessions covering a period of four years, appor- tioned much of the labor of preparing the Check-List among various subcommittees, the work of individual members of the Committee between its sessions being thus the real measure of its activities. The results have been made public in two supplements (Fourteenth and

1 The Code of Nomenclature | and | Check-List of North American Birds | adopted by the American Ornithologists’ Union | being the Report of the Committee | of the Union on Classification and Nomenclature | | Zodlogical Nomenclature is a means, not an end, of Zodlogical Science |— |New York | American Ornithologists’ Union | 1886.— 8vo, pp. viii + 392.

2 Check-List | of | North American Birds | Prepared by a Committee | of the American Ornithologists’ Union | Second and Revised Edition | | Zodlogical Nomenclature is a means, not an end, of Zodlogical Science | | New York | American Ornithologists’ Union | 1895 8vo, pp. xi + 372.

3 The | Code of Nomenclature | adopted by the | American Ornithologists’ Union | | Revised Edition |— | Zodlogical Nomenclature is a means, not an end, of Zodlogical Science |— |New York| American Ornithologists’ Union|July, 1908—8vo, pp. i- Ixxxv. Edition, 200 copies + 150 printed later.

7

8 PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.

Fifteenth) to the Check-List, published respectively in “The Auk’ for July, 1908, and July, 1909.1

The changes in nomenclature from the second edition are numer- ous, and result mainly from two causes: The recent unprecedented activity in bibliographic research, abroad as well as in America, and the strict application of the law of priority. The critical examination of many little known or wholly overlooked early publications, and more careful scrutiny of others long well known, has led to the dis- covery of many generic and specific names that, under universally accepted rules of nomenclature, must be adopted. Many of these changes result from the tendency heretofore to ignore rules of nomen- clature when their observance entailed unwelcome changes in technical names. With each year, however, the tendency is toward a strict enforcement of generally accepted rules of nomenclature, the former indifference to such rules rapidly giving place to their strenuous observance, especially by the younger school of taxonomers. :

Many changes in generic names have resulted from raising to generic rank various groups recognized merely as subgenera in the first and second editions of the Check-List, their reduction in grade by the original Committee having failed to meet with general approval.

The classification adopted for the Check-List a quarter of a century ago does not now reflect current views on the relationships of many

1 Eight Supplements to the Check-List have been published since the appearance of the second edition, as follows:

Eighth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds.— Auk, XIV, Jan., 1897, pp. 117-135.

Ninth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North Ameri- can Birds.— Auk, XVI, Jan., 1899, pp. 97-133.

Tenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North Ameri- can Birds.— Auk, XVIII, July, 1901, pp. 295-320.

Eleventh Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds.— Auk, XIX, July, 1902, pp. 315-342.

Twelfth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds.— Auk, XX, July, 1903, pp. 331-368.

Thirteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds.— Auk, XXI, July, 1904, pp. 411-424,

Fourteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds.— Auk, XXV, July, 1908, pp. 343-399.

Fifteenth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds.— Auk, XXVI, July, 1909, pp. 294-303.

For a list of the previous Supplements see the Preface to the second edition of the Check-List (below, p. 15).

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 9

of the ordinal and subordinal groups of birds. It was at first the intention of the Committee to modernize the sequence of these groups. The fact, however, that present systems of classification in ornithology are admittedly tentative, and differ widely among themselves, it seemed best, from the standpoint of convenience, to continue the old Check- List system unchanged, since the users of the Check-List are familiar with the present order of arrangement and would regret the annoyance that a radical change from it would cause. In deference to this known wide-spread preference the old order of arrangement has been continued. In the opinion of the Committee, a slight modification’ of the system proposed by Dr. Hans Gadow in 1892-93? would best reflect our present knowledge of the classification of birds, an abstract of which is here added. This system is at present extensively em- ployed, it being that followed by Evans in the volume ‘Birds’ of the ‘Cambridge Natural History Series’ (London, 1899), and by Knowl- ton in his recently published ‘Birds of the World’ (New York, 1909). It is also the basis of the system adopted by Ridgway in his ‘Birds of North and Middle America.’ The subjoined abstract of the Gadow system is from Bronn’s ‘Thier-reichs’. The Check-List equivalents are added in brackets, for convenience of comparison.

ABSTRACT OF GADOW’s CLASSIFICATION OF Birps.

Crass AVES?

Subclass I. ARrcH#ORNITHES. Subclass II. Nxrornitues. Division I. Neornithes Ratite. Ratiie. Struthbiones. Rhee.

1It is believed, for example, that the groups Columba, Striges, and Psittaci should be accorded ordinal rank; and in general the Committee would prefer the Check-List eval- uation of the groups therein recognized as orders and suborders.

2 On the Classification of Birds. By Hans Gadow, M. A., Ph. D., F. Z. 8., Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Advanced Morphology of Vertebrata in the University of Cambridge.— Proc. Zoél. Soc. London, 1892, pp. 229-256.

Dr. H. G. Bronn’s Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-reichs, wissenschaftlich darges- telt in Wort und Bild. Sechster Band. Vierte Abtheilung. Végel. Von Hans Gadow, Ph. D., M.A., F.R.S. .... II, Systematischer Theil, Leipzig, 1893.— Roy. 8vo, pp. vii + 304.

3 Subclass I, and Divisions 1 and 2, and Order 1 of Division 3, consist wholly of extinct types, and are not included in the classification, adopted in the Check-List, given above in the ‘Table of Contents’,

10

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.

Casuarii. Apteryges. Dinornithes. Epyornithes.

Stereornithes.

Phororhacos, Brontornis, Stereornis, etc. Diatryma.

Remiornis, Dasornis.

Gastornis.

Division 2. Neornithes Odontolce.

Hesperornithes. Enaliornithes.

Division 3. Neornithes Carinate.

Order 1.

tt? 2.

oP

go 90

“10.

Ichthyornithes. Colymbiformes. [= Order Pygopodes, excluding Alcide.] Suborder Colymbi. [= Suborder Cepphi, excluding Alcide.] © Podicipedes. [= Suborder Colymbi.] Sphenisciformes. [Extralimital.] Procellariiformes. [= Order Tubinares.] Ciconiiformes. [= Orders Steganopodes, Herodiones, and Odon- toglossz.] Suborder Steganopodes. [= Order Steganopodes.] ie Ardez. [= Suborder Herodii.] Me Ciconize. [= Suborders Ibides and Ciconiz.] ie Pheenicopteri. [= Order Odontoglosse.] Anseriformes. (= Order Anseres.] Falconiformes. [= Order Raptores, excluding Striges.] Suborder Cathartze. [= Suborder Sarcorhamphi.] " Accipitres. [== Suborder Falcones.] Tinamiformes. [Extralimital.] Galliformes. [= Order Galline.] Suborder Mesites. [Extralimital.] us Turnices. [Extralimital.] oe Galli. (= Suborders Phasiani and Penelopes.] e Opisthocomi. [Extralimital.] Gruiformes. [= Order Paludicole, divided into Suborders Grues and Ralli.] Charadriiformes. [= Orders Limicole and Longipennes, Family Alcide, and Order Columbe.] Suborder Limicole. [= Order Limicole.] e Lari. [= Order Longipennes + Alcide.] Pterocles. [Extralimital.] Columbe. [= Order Columbe.] Cuculiformes. [= Order Psittaci and Suborder Cuculi.] Suborder Cuculi. [= Suborder Cuculi.] er Psittaci. [= Order Psittaci.]

rT?

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. 11

Order 13. Coraciiformes. [= Suborders Trogones, Aleyones and Striges, and Orders Macrochires and Pici.] Suborder Coracize. [== Suborder Aleyones + other (extra- limital) groups.] Suborder Striges. [= Suborder Striges of Raptores.] a Caprimulgi. [= Suborder Caprimulgi.] st Cypseli. [= Suborders Cypseli and Trochili.] Trogones. [= Suborder Trogones.] o Pici. [= Order Pici + various extralimital fami- lies in addition to the Woodpeckers.] «© 14. Passeriformes. [= Order Passeres.] Suborder Passeres anisomyodi. Subclamatores. [Extralimital.] Clamatores. [= Suborder Clamatores.] Passeres diacromyodi. Suboscines. [Extralimital.] Oscines. [= Suborder Oscines.]

It has been considered advisable to retain the present sequence of the groups down to and including species. As many species have been added, and some eliminated, since the publication of the original edition of the Check-List in 1886, a new consecutive numbering of the species would differ much from that hitherto in use. It has there- fore seemed best to omit the serial numbering in the present edition, giving the old numbers in brackets at the right of the name, as a cross-reference or concordance to the previous editions and the later Supplements.

The geographical boundaries of the Check-List area remain as heretofore.

The principal changes in the construction of the new edition are the following:

1. The elimination of all species included in former editions exclusively on the authority of Giraud as found in “Texas,” except where their occurrence within the Check-List limits has been confirmed.

2. The secondary references under species and subspecies, and the concord- ance to the previous check-lists (those of Baird, Coues, and Ridgway), are omitted.

3. The mention of the type species under genera is followed by a statement of how the type was determined whether by monotypy, tautonymy, original designation, or subsequent designation.

4. The type localities of species and subspecies are given as indicated by the original author.

5. Generic, specific, and subspecific names are marked for accent.

12 PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.

6. Numbering of species omitted.

7. Stragglers or accidental visitors are designated by the matter relating to them being bracketed.

8. Subspecies are distinguished typographically by the use of smaller

type. 9. Addition of a map showing the principal life zones of North America.

At the meetings of the Committee held in 1905 and 1906, and also later, the various parts of the work connected with the preparation of a new Check-List were assigned to different members of the Com- mittee, acting as subcommittees, with whom were sometimes asso- ciated other members of the Union familiar with special questions. The Committee is thus especially indebted to Messrs. Chapman, Cooke, A. K. Fisher, J. Grinnell, Lucas, Nelson, Oberholser, Osgood, and Stejneger for assistance in its work. To Dr. Richmond was assigned the task of verifying the references and citations in the second edition of the Check-List, and of preparing the nomenclatural part of the new Check-List for publication. A special subcommittee on nomenclature was established, consisting of the Chairman, Richmond, and Stone. To Mr. Ridgway (with the codperation of Dr. Stejneger) was assigned the task of drafting a new classification, which, however, it was finally decided not to use, for reasons already given. ‘The determination of type localities of species and subspecies was assigned to Drs. Richmond and A. K. Fisher. The revision of the list of fossil North American birds was referred to Drs. Richmond and Lucas. The accentuation of the technical names was referred to a sub- committee consisting of the Chairman, Dr. Dwight, and Mr. Batchelder.

The preliminary revision of the geographical ranges of the species and subspecies was undertaken by Mr. Stone, while the final revision and preparation of the manuscript for the press was assumed by Dr. Merriam, who, with the aid of members of his scientific staff (Biologi- cal Survey) has given the subject thorough consideration. It was at first intended to base the revision on an examination of published records, but later these were supplemented by the resources, in large part unpublished, of the Biological Survey. The ranges as now given therefore embody a large amount of original research, and may be taken as reflecting the present available knowledge of the subject, for which the Union owes a lasting debt of gratitude to

PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.. 13

Mr. Stone and Dr. Merriam, and those associated with them in the work."

A subcommittee on the revision of the vernacular names consisted of the Chairman and Dr. Dwight. The changes made are not numer- ous, and are mainly the substitution of the vernacular names most in use within the range of the species. (For a list of these changes see the Fifteenth Supplement, published in ‘The Auk,’ July, 1909, pp. 302, 303).

The final editorial supervision of the new Check-List was assigned to the Chairman.

(J. A. Atnen, Chairman.

Cuas. W. Ricamonp, Secretary. WILuiaAM BREWSTER.

Committee. } JonaTHAN Dwicut, JR.

C. Hart Merriam.

Rosert Ripeway.

| WITMER STONE.

1 Besides the valuable assistance rendered by Messrs. W. W. Cooke, H. W. Henshaw, E. W. Nelson, H. C. Oberholser, and W. H. Osgood, of the Biological Survey, Mr. Joseph Grinnell, Curator of the Museum of Vertebrate Zodlogy of the University of California, has kindly revised the ranges of many of the species represented in California. Messrs. Arthur T. Wayne, Andrew Allison, and H. H. Kopman furnished, respectively, Taanuscript lists of the birds of South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana, for the use of the Committee.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

At the Eleventh Congress of the American Ornithologists’ Union,

held in Cambridge, Mass., November 20-23, 1894, it was voted to publish, as early as practicable, a new edition of the Union’s Check- List of North American Birds, to include the numerous additions and nomenclatural changes made in the several Supplements' to the Check-List since the publication of the original edition, together with a revision of the ‘habitats’ of the species and subspecies, but omitting the Code of Nomenclature.” The original Committee on Classifica- tion and Nomenclature. of North American Birds was reappointed® to take charge of the work. The Committee held sessions in Washing- ton, D. C., January 15-19, 1894, and February 12, 13, 1895, to outline the work and to rule on the questions involved in the publication of the revised List. The revision of the matter relating to the geographic

1 Supplement | to the | Code of Nomenclature and Check-List | of | North American Birds | adopted by the American Ornithologists’ Union | Prepared by | a Committee of the Union | | New York | American Ornithologists’ Union | 1889.— 8vo, pp. 23.

Second Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds. The Auk, VII, Jan. 1890, pp. 60-66. Also separate.

Third Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North Ameri- can Birds. The Auk, VIII, Jan. 1891, pp. 83-90. Also separate.

Fourth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds. The Auk, IX, Jan. 1892, pp. 105-108. Also separate.

Fifth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds. The Auk, X, Jan. 1893, pp. 59-63. Also separate.

Sixth Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North Ameri- can Birds. The Auk, XI, Jan. 1894, pp. 46-51. Also separate.

Seventh Supplement to the American Ornithologists’ Union Check-List of North American Birds. The Auk, XII, April, 1894, pp. 163-169. Also separate.

Check-List | of | North American Birds | according to the Canons of Nomenclature | of the | American Ornithologists’ Union | | Abridged Edition | Revised | | Published by the American Ornithologists’ Union | 1889.— 8vo, pp. 71. Includes the additions to the original Check-List made in the first Supplement.

2 Republished separately in 1892 as a pamphlet of 72 pages with the following title: The | Code of Nomenclature | adopted by the | American Ornithologists’ Union | | Zodlogical Nomenclature is a means, not an end, of Zoélogical Science | | New York | American Ornithologists’ Union | 1892. [8vo, pp. i-v + 1-72. Same as the original, with a prefatory ‘Note’ and Index.] '

3 With the exception of Mr. H. W. Henshaw, who was unable to serve, and Dr. C. Hart Merriam was appointed in his stead.

15

16 PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

distribution of the species and subspecies was undertaken by the Committee as a whole, each member in turn taking it in hand, while the incorporation of typographic and other rectifications made during the sessions of the Committee,’ and the final preparation of the manu- script for the printer, was referred to a subcommittee consisting of the Editor of ‘The Auk,’ to whom was also assigned the general editorial supervision of the work.

The following extracts from the Introduction to the Code of Nomen- clature (pp. 14, 15) will serve to explain the scope and plan of the Check-List, including the method of incorporating additions.

“1, That the term ‘North American,’ as applied to the proposed List of Birds, be held to include the continent of North America north of the present United States and Mexican boundary, and Greenland; and the peninsula of Lower California, with the islands naturally belonging thereto.

“2. That species be numbered consecutively, and that subspecies be enumerated by affixing the letters, a, b, c, etc., to the number borne by their respective species; provided, that any subspecies of a species not included in the North American Fauna shall be separately numbered as if a species.

“3, That stragglers or accidental visitors, not regarded as components of the North American Fauna, be distinguished by having their respective num- bers in brackets.

“4, That any subsequent additions to the list be interpolated in systema- tic order, and bear the number of the species immediately preceding, with the addition of a figure (1, 2, etc., as the case may require), separated from the original number by a period or decimal point, thus giving the interpolated number a decimal form (e. g., 243.1, etc.), in order that the original numbers may be permanent.

* * * * * * * * * * * *

“6. That Giraud’s at present unconfirmed species of Texan birds be in- cluded in the List on Giraud’s authority.

“7, That species and subspecies the zodlogical status of which cannot be satisfactorily determined, like, e. g., Regulus cuviert and Spiza townsendi of Audubon, be referred to a hypothetical list, in each case with a brief statement of the reasons for such allocation.

“8. That a list of the fossil species of North American birds be added as an Appendix to the List proper.

1 The Committee desires to here acknowledge valuable assistance received, especially in the preparation of the geographic portions of the list, from Major Charles Bendire, Mr. Frank M. Chapman, Dr. Walter Faxon, Dr. A. K. Fisher, Mr. Gerrit 8. Miller, Jr., and Dr. T. 8. Palmer. The Committee is further indebted to Dr. Palmer for numerous correc- tions in the citations of original references.

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. lV

“9, That the names of subgeneric and supergeneric groups of North American birds be included in the List in systematic order, to the end that the List may represent a classification as well as a nomenclature of the birds.

“10. That references be given to the original description of the species, and to the publication where the name as adopted in the List was first used; that the number borne by each species and subspecies in the Lists of Baird, 1858, of Coues, 1873, of Ridgway, 1880, and of Coues, 1882, be bracketed in chronological order after the synonymatic references.

“11, That a summary statement of the habitat of each species and sub- species, with special reference to its North American range, be included in the List.

“12. That the name of each bird shall consist of its generic without its subgeneric name, and of its specific with its subspecific name, if it have one, without the intervention of any other term.

* * * * * * * * * * * *

“14. That every technical name be followed by a vernacular name, selected with due regard to its desirability.

“15. That the name of each species and subspecies be followed by the name of the original describer of the same, to be enclosed in parenthesis when it is not also the authority for the name adopted.

“16. That all specific and subspecific names shall begin with a lower-case letter.

“17, That the sequence in classification followed in previous Lists be reversed, the List to begin with the lowest or most generalized type, and end with the highest or most specialized.”

ELLIOT COUES.

J. A. ALLEN. WILLIAM BREWSTER. C. HART MERRIAM. ROBERT RIDGWAY.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

A? the first Congress of the American Ornithologists’ Union, held in New York, September 26-29, 1883, the following resolution was adopted:

“Resolved, That the Chairman appoint a Committee of five, including him- self, to whom shall be referred the question of a Revision of the Classification and Nomenclature of the Birds of North America.”

In pursuance of this resolution the following Committee was ap- pointed: Messrs. Coues, Allen, Ridgway, Brewster, and Henshaw.

The Committee, having held numerous sessions in Washington and New York, presented its Report at the second Congress of the Union, held in New York, Sept. 30 to Oct. 2, 1884, when the following resolu- tion was adopted:

Resolved, That the Report of the Committee on the Revision of the Nomen- clature and Classification of North American Birds be accepted and adopted, and that it be recommitted to the Committee, with instructions to complete and submit it to the Council as soon as practicable; and that the Council be empowered and instructed to accept and adopt the Report as finally rendered, with such modifications as they may deem necessary, and to publish the same, copyrighted, in part or in whole, and in one or more forms, in the name and under the auspices of the American Ornithologists’ Union.”

The Committee, having continued its sessions, presented its final report to the Council at a meeting held in Washington on the 21st of April, 1885, when the Report of the Committee was accepted and adopted, and was referred again to the Committee for publication, the Committee to exercise such editorial revision as might seem necessary.

Pursuant to the foregoing resolutions of the Union and Council, the Committee now offers to the public, in the name and on behalf of the Union, the result of its labors, consisting of a List of North Ameri-

19

20 PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION.

can Birds, preceded by the Code of Rules adopted by the Committee for its guidance in the preparation of the List.

The Committee ventures to hope that the new Code will find favor, not only with ornithologists, but among zodlogists generally.

ELLIOTT COUES.

J. A. ALLEN.

ROBERT RIDGWAY. WILLIAM BREWSTER. H. W. HENSHAW.

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CHECK-LIST.

OrpER PYGOPODES. Divine Birps.

SUBORDER COLYMBI. GReEBEs. Famity COLYMBIDA. GRrEBES.

Genus AZCHMOPHORUS Coves.

4ichmophorus Cours, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 229. Type, by orig. desig., Podiceps occidentalis LAWRENCE.

Aichméphorus occidentalis (LAWRENCE). Western Grebe. [1.]

Podiceps occidentalis LAWRENCE, in Bairp, Rep. Expl. & Surv. R. R. Pac., IX, 1858, 894. (Fort Steilacoom, Washington.)

RanceE.— Western North America. Breeds from British Columbia, southern Saskatchewan, and southern Manitoba south to northern California, Utah, and northern North Dakota; winters from southern British Columbia south through California to central Mexico (Jalisco); casual east to Nebraska, Kansas, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Quebec.

Genus COLYMBUS Linn zvs.

Colymbus Linnazus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, I, 1758, 185. Type, by subs. desig., Colymbus cristatus Linnazus (A. O. U. Comm., 1886).

21

22 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS.

Suscenvus COLYMBUS.

Colymbus hélbelli (ReivHaRpT). Holbell’s Grebe. [2.]

Podiceps holbellii Retnnarpt, Videnskab. Meddelelser, 1853, 76. (Nen- ortalik, Julianehaab district, Greenland.)

Rance.— North America and eastern Asia. Breeds from north- western Alaska, northern Mackenzie, and northern Ungava south to northern Washington, northern Montana, and southwestern Minnesota; winters from southern British Columbia, southern Wisconsin, south- ern Ontario, and Maine south to southern California, southern Colorado, the Ohio Valley, and North Carolina; casual in Georgia and Greenland.

Suspcenus DYTES Kavp.

Dytes Kaur, Skizz. Entw.-Gesch. Eur. Thierw., 1829, 41. Type, by mono- typy, Colymbus auritus Linnzus.

Colymbus auritus Linnzus. Horned Grebe. [3.] Colymbus auritus Linnazvs, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, I, 1758, 135. (Sweden.)

Ranee.— Northern part of Northern Hemisphere. Breeds from the lower Yukon, northern Mackenzie, central Keewatin, southwestern Ungava, and Magdalen Islands south to southern British Columbia, northern Utah, northern Nebraska, central Minnesota, southern On- tario, and northeastern Maine; winters from southern British Colum- bia, southern Ontario, and Maine south to southern California, the Gulf coast, and Florida; casual in Greenland.

Colymbus nigricéllis (BREHM).

Rance.— Temperate Europe, Asia, and North America; in winter south to South Africa and Central America. a. ([Colymbus nigricollis nigricollis. Extralimital.]

b. Colymbus nigricollis califérnicus (HEzERMANN). Eared Grebe. [4.]

Podiceps californicus Herrmann, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1854, 179. (California.)

ORDER PYGOPODES. 23

Rance.— Western North America. Breeds from central British Columbia, Great Slave Lake, and Manitoba south to southern California, northern Arizona, northern Nebraska, and northern Iowa; winters from central Cali- fornia to Cape San Lucas and Guatemala; east to Kansas in migration; casual in Missouri, Indiana, and Ontario.

Suscenus TACHYBAPTUS ReicHENBACH.

Tachybaptus Reicnenspacn, Avium Syst. Nat., 1849, pl. ii. Type, by orig. desig., Colymbus minor ReicHenBacH = C.ruficollis Pauuas.

Colymbus dominicus Linn xus. RanceE.— Subtropical and tropical America.

a. ([Colymbus dominicus dominicus. Extralimital.] b. Colymbus dominicus brach¥pterus Caapman. MexicanGrebe. [5.]

Colymbus dominicus brachypterus CoapMaN, Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H., XII, 1899, 256. (Lomita Ranch, Lower Rio Grande, Texas.)

Ranae.— Southern Lower California and southern Texas south to Panama.

Genus PODILYMBUS Legsson.

Podilymbus Lesson, Traité d’Orn., 1831, 595. Type, by monotypy, Podiceps carolinensis LatHAM = Colymbus podiceps LINNZUS.

Podilymbus pédiceps (Linnzus). Pied-billed Grebe. [6.] Colymbus podiceps Linnxus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, I, 1758, 136. (Carolina.)

Ranee.— North and South America. Breeds from British Colum- bia, southern Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, Quebec, and New Brunswick south to Chile and Argentina, but often rare or local; winters from Washington, Texas, Mississippi, and Potomac Valley southward.

24 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS.

SuBoRDER CEPPHI. Loons anpD AUKS. Famity GAVIIDZ. Loons.

Genus GAVIA J. R. Forster.

Gavia Forsrer, Enchirid. Hist. Nat., 1788, 38. Based exclusively upon the Loons; type, by subs. desig., Colymbus imber GuNNERUS = C. immer Brotwnicu (Allen, 1907).

GAvia immer (BriinnicH). Loon. [7.]

Colymbus immer Brinnicu, Orn. Borealis, 1764, 38. (Probably north- ern Norway.)

Rancr.— Northern part of Northern Hemisphere. Breeds in America from Kotzebue Sound, Banks Land, Barrow Strait, and northern Greenland south to northern California, northern Iowa, northern Illinois (at least formerly), northern Indiana, northern Ohio, northern New York, Pennsylvania (casually), New Hampshire, Mass- achusetts (rarely), and Nova Scotia; winters from southern British Columbia, the Great Lakes, and southern New England to southern Lower California, the Gulf coast, and Florida.

Gavia fédamsi (Gray). Yellow-billed Loon. [8.] Colymbus adamsii Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 167. (Alaska.)

RancE.— Circumpolar. Breeds from northwestern Alaska, north- ern Mackenzie, and Boothia Peninsula south to mouth of the Yukon and to Great Slave Lake; south in migration to Nushagak, Alaska; accidental in Colorado and Greenland; breeds also in northern Siberia and on islands north of Europe.

Gavia arctica (Linnzus). Black-throated Loon. [9.] Colymbus arcticus Linnzus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, I, 1758, 185. (Sweden.) Raner.— Northern part of Northern Hemisphere. Breeds from

Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, west along northern coast of Siberia, on is- lands north of Europe, and from Cumberland Sound south to Ungava;

ORDER PYGOPODES. 25

winters in the southern Canadian Provinces; casually south to Colo- rado, Nebraska, Iowa, northern Ohio, and Long Island, N. Y.

Gavia pacifica (LAWRENCE). Pacific Loon. [10.]

Colymbus pacificus LAWRENCE, in Barrp, Rep. Expl. & Surv. R. R. Pac., IX, 1858, 889. (San Diego, Cal., and Puget Sound, Washington.)

RanGE.— Western North America. Breeds from Point Barrow, Banks Land, northern Mackenzie, and Melville Peninsula south to base of Alaska Peninsula, Great Slave Lake, and central Keewatin; winters along Pacific coast from southern British Columbia to Lower California and Guadalupe Island; accidental in New Mexico.

Gavia stellata (PoNTOPPIDAN). Red-throated Loon. [11.]

Colymbus stellatus Ponroprmwan, Danske Atlas, I, 1763, 621. (Based on Colymbus maximus stellatus of Willughby.)

Rance.— Northern part of Northern Hemisphere. Breeds from northern Alaska, Banks Land, Ellesmere Land, and northern Green- land south to Commander Islands, western Aleutian Islands, Glacier Bay, southern Mackenzie, central Keewatin, central Quebec, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland; winters from southern British Colum- bia to southern California, and from Maine and the Great Lakes to Florida; casual in interior to Montana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Arizona; breeds also throughout Arctic Europe and Asia, and winters south to the Mediterranean and southern China.

Famity ALCIDA. Avuxs, Murres, aND PUFFINS. SupraMity FRATERCULINA. Purrins. Genus LUNDA Pattas.

Lunda Pauuas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiatica, II, 1826 (1811 ?), 363. Type, by subs. desig., Alca cirrhata Pauuas (Gray, 1840). Landa cirrhéta (PatLas). Tufted Puffin. [12.]

Alca cirrhata Pauuas, Spic. Zool., I, Fase. v, 1769, 7, pl. i; pl. v, figs. 1-3. (Kamchatka to Aleutian Islands.)

26 CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS.

RancE.—Coasts and islands of the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Pacific from Cape Lisburne, Alaska, south to Santa Barbara Islands, California, and from Bering Strait to Japan; accidental in Maine and Greenland.

GENUS FRATERCULA Brisson.

Fratercula Brisson, Orn., VI, 1760, 81. Type, by monotypy, [Frater- cula] fratercula Brisson = Alca arctica